Low Fertility Cohorts Study

The Low Fertility Cohorts Study

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, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts, consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978

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, a national survey of 1

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,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades

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. In addition to the general purpose, the study was designed to gather information to test specific hypotheses concerning demographic and socioeconomic differentials in fertility, the prevalence of contraceptive practice and the methods employed, the extent to which subfecundity and sterility may have contributed to low fertility, and the timing patterns and childbearing pace of the time. The interview collected information on each respondent’s family planning, contraception usage, pregnancy history

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, fecundity, infertility, fertility, and maternal and infant health. Besides demographic characteristics and background information about the respondents, information was also gathered on their household composition, their husband(s), marriages, and areas of residency.

Bibiela

Bibiela (niem. Bibiella) – sołectwo, część miasta Miasteczko Śląskie.
W przyleśnej dróżce znajduje się zameczek. Został zbudowany w 1890 r. przez rodzinę Henckel von Donnersmarck, która była właścicielem okolicznych lasów. W latach 70. został przejęty przez PZPR dla ówczesnego I sekretarza E. Gierka. W otoczeniu znajdował się basen, duży ogród.
Dalej w bardzo dalekich głębiach lasu znajdują się lasy zwane przez okolicznych mieszkańców “Pasiekami”. Jest tu zatopiona kopalnia rudy żelaza i kruszcu. W 1880 r. natrafiono na niezmierne pokłady rudy

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, co spowodowało w 1889 r. powstanie kopalni o wielkich rozmiarach

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. Wydobywano tam przez 28 lat rudy żelaza i kruszcu. Lecz dnia 17 stycznia 1917 r. przed południem natrafiono na w jednej ze sztolni duży napływ wody

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. Nagle o 14:00 w kopalni, kiedy górnicy kończyli zmianę, rozległ się w kopalni ogromny huk i szum wody. Jednak szczęściem było to, iż wszyscy górnicy zdołali się uratować. W przeciągu 2 godzin cała kopalni została zalana i wraz z nią wszystkie maszyny, zaś kilkaset górników straciło pracę

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.
We wsi i okolicy jest także kilka pomnikowych drzew: 9 prawie 200 letnich lip, 4 dęby szacowane na 550 lat a jeden o wiek młodszy[potrzebny przypis].

Serravalle Langhe

Serravalle Langhe – miejscowość i gmina we Włoszech, w regionie Piemont, w prowincji Cuneo

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Według danych na rok 2004 gminę zamieszkują 352 osoby

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, 39

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./km².
Acceglio • Aisone • Alba • Albaretto della Torre • Alto • Argentera • Arguello • Bagnasco • Bagnolo Piemonte • Baldissero d’Alba • Barbaresco • Barge • Barolo • Bastia Mondovì • Battifollo • Beinette • Bellino • Belvedere Langhe • Bene Vagienna • Benevello • Bergolo • Bernezzo • Bonvicino • Borgo San Dalmazzo • Borgomale • Bosia • Bossolasco • Boves • Bra • Briaglia • Briga Alta • Brondello • Brossasco • Busca • Camerana • Camo • Canale • Canosio • Caprauna • Caraglio • Caramagna Piemonte • Cardè • Carrù • Cartignano • Casalgrasso • Castagnito • Casteldelfino • Castellar • Castelletto Stura • Castelletto Uzzone • Castellinaldo • Castellino Tanaro • Castelmagno • Castelnuovo di Ceva • Castiglione Falletto • Castiglione Tinella • Castino • Cavallerleone • Cavallermaggiore • Celle di Macra • Centallo • Ceresole Alba • Cerreto Langhe • Cervasca • Cervere • Ceva • Cherasco • Chiusa di Pesio • Cigliè • Cissone • Clavesana • Corneliano d’Alba • Cortemilia • Cossano Belbo • Costigliole Saluzzo • Cravanzana • Crissolo • Cuneo • Demonte • Diano d’Alba • Dogliani • Dronero • Elva • Entracque • Envie • Farigliano • Faule • Feisoglio • Fossano • Frabosa Soprana • Frabosa Sottana • Frassino • Gaiola • Gambasca • Garessio • Genola • Gorzegno • Gottasecca • Govone • Grinzane Cavour • Guarene • Igliano • Isasca • La Morra • Lagnasco • Lequio Berria • Lequio Tanaro • Lesegno • Levice • Limone Piemonte • Lisio • Macra • Magliano Alfieri • Magliano Alpi • Mango • Manta • Marene • Margarita • Marmora • Marsaglia • Martiniana Po • Melle • Moiola • Mombarcaro • Mombasiglio • Monastero di Vasco • Monasterolo Casotto • Monasterolo di Savigliano • Monchiero • Mondovì • Monesiglio • Monforte d’Alba • Montaldo Roero • Montaldo di Mondovì • Montanera • Montelupo Albese • Montemale di Cuneo • Monterosso Grana • Monteu Roero • Montezemolo • Monticello d’Alba • Montà • Moretta • Morozzo • Murazzano • Murello • Narzole • Neive • Neviglie • Niella Belbo • Niella Tanaro • Novello • Nucetto • Oncino • Ormea • Ostana • Paesana • Pagno • Pamparato • Paroldo • Perletto • Perlo • Peveragno • Pezzolo Valle Uzzone • Pianfei • Piasco • Pietraporzio • Piobesi d’Alba • Piozzo • Pocapaglia • Polonghera • Pontechianale • Pradleves • Prazzo • Priero • Priocca • Priola • Prunetto • Racconigi • Revello • Rifreddo • Rittana • Roaschia • Roascio • Robilante • Roburent • Rocca Cigliè • Rocca de’ Baldi • Roccabruna • Roccaforte Mondovì • Roccasparvera • Roccavione • Rocchetta Belbo • Roddi • Roddino • Rodello • Rossana • Ruffia • Sale San Giovanni • Sale delle Langhe • Saliceto • Salmour • Saluzzo • Sambuco • Sampeyre • San Benedetto Belbo • San Damiano Macra • San Michele Mondovì • Sanfront • Sanfrè • Sant’Albano Stura • Santa Vittoria d’Alba • Santo Stefano Belbo • Santo Stefano Roero • Savigliano • Scagnello • Scarnafigi • Serralunga d’Alba • Serravalle Langhe • Sinio • Somano • Sommariva Perno • Sommariva del Bosco • Stroppo • Tarantasca • Torre Bormida • Torre Mondovì • Torre San Giorgio • Torresina • Treiso • Trezzo Tinella • Trinità • Valdieri • Valgrana • Valloriate • Valmala • Venasca • Verduno • Vernante • Verzuolo • Vezza d’Alba • Vicoforte • Vignolo • Villafalletto • Villanova Mondovì • Villanova Solaro • Villar San Costanzo • Vinadio • Viola • Vottignasco

Larry Giovando

Larry Giovando also known formally as Lorenzo Giovando (born March 10, 1905) was twice MLA in British Columbia’s Legislative Assembly for the Conservative Party of British Columbia for the seat of Nanaimo and the Islands. His 1952 and 1953 victories are examples of how the Instant runoff voting of how the IRV system works to allow ensure that a majority find the candidate acceptable.
In the provincial election of 1952, on the first ballot he received only 3346 votes (31.9%) to CCF candidate Daniel Stupich’s 3715 (35.4%), but since Stupich failed to receive a majority, the election was decided by “instant run-off” whereby the top two candidates received votes from the third and fourth place Liberal and Social Credit candidates. When these votes were redistributed, Giovando emerged the winner 5144 (52.9%) to 4581 (47.1%).
The results of the 1953 election continued in the same vein as Giovando polled only 2,046 votes (20.8%) in the first ballot but managed 4,376 (50

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.1%) on the second, against Stupich’s 3,631 (37

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.0%) on the first and 4,358 (49

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.9%) on the second. It was the only seat the PCs would win in that election, and they would cease to be an electoral entity thereafter

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Crusader 101

The Crusader 101 was an electrically-operated toy car introduced in 1964 by Deluxe Reading of Elizabeth, New Jersey and produced through 1966. Intended for sale in discount and grocery stores, the Crusader 101 was easily among the largest and most detailed toy cars on the market.
The toy did not represent any specific car. The front featured stacked, forward-sweeping headlights and slightly pointed hood reminiscent of Pontiacs of the period while the inwardly dished grille and crossbar resembled those used on early 1960s Mercurys. The taillights strongly resembled those on 1948-1956 Cadillacs while the rear end and overall styling suggested the 1961 Lincoln Continental convertible rendered in molded red plastic. The highly detailed interior featured white bucket seats with black inserts both front and rear, matching door panels, black “carpeting” and a chrome-plated dashboard and console with legible gauges and radio dial resembling those in the Mercury Monterey. The chrome-plated windshield frame surrounded a green-tinted windshield and was topped by working sun visors.
The Crusader 101 had the additional benefit of size. It measured about three feet in length – or just under one meter – which allowed for some elaborate detail hitherto unseen in a toy car. The trunk had storage space for a spare tire, jack and lug wrench which could be used to actually change a wheel. Twin radio aerials on either rear fender could be raised or lowered by hand. Not only were the sun visors adjustable, the turn signal lever, steering wheel and gear selector could be moved as well. A male driver figure was included with the car – in a relaxed pose at the wheel and was just as detailed as the car itself. He was unpainted beige plastic. A remote control and battery holder shaped like an automatic transmission selector allowed the car to be “driven” per the promise on the box of “YOU DRIVE IT – YOU PARK IT.”
Despite its size and level of detail unusual for a toy car, the Crusader 101 was, first and foremost, a toy

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. The front steering knuckles were prone to breaking, especially if one got a bit too eager with the lug wrench

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. Electrical problems were common usually manifesting themselves in failed steering control. The windshield frame often warped with age as did the body – though to a much lesser degree – while the vacuum-plated chrome plastic parts tended to turn black. Regardless of its problems, the Crusader 101 is one of the most collectible toy cars of the postwar era. Originally priced at around US$13, prime, mint-with-box examples can easily fetch upwards of $300

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. The Crusader 101’s size has always made it particularly desirable to Barbie collectors since it is well-proportioned to the fashion doll and will easily seat four of them. Deluxe Reading manufactured a “Dream Kitchen” playset during that period that was scaled to Barbie and similar dolls. As such, the Crusader 101 was the subject of the cover story of the December, 2002 edition of Barbie Bazaar magazine.

Fauziah Mohd Taib

Fauziah Mohamad Taib (PhD), or Dr Fauziah Mohd Taib (official title: Dato’ Dr Fauziah Mohamad Taib) is a Malaysian diplomat and published author. She was previously the Ambassador to the Kingdom of the Netherlands, a post she held from 13 August 2008 until her retirement in 2015. She also served as the Permanent Representative of Malaysia to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is based in The Hague.
Fauziah has written extensively on a variety of topics of interest to the diplomat. Her first published work, titled Malaysia and UNCED: An Analysis of A Diplomatic Process was published under Kluwer Law International in 1989 and remains a reference for the diplomatic negotiation process

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. Since then, she has authored or edited no less than ten other books, including editing the best-selling Number One, Wisma Putra, a collection of short stories from Malaysian Ambassadors of their lives on the road. Her latest book, At the OPCW: A Story of Malaysia’s Interventions, was launched by the OPCW Director General in March 2015.
In 2005, Fauziah was appointed as the Director General of the Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations, the training arm of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It was during her tenure at the Institute that she instituted major changes to the diplomatic syllabus, tailoring the courses to the relevant diplomatic skills needed for a 21st-century diplomat. She advocated for a more interactive mode of training, preferring simulation and discussions, over lectures and talks.
She published a number of books while at the Institute, and helped others to publish as well, strengthening the publication mandate of the Institute. Her writing skills were also employed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs during this time as his lead speech-writer. She is known for her strength in substantive issues as well as a flair for the written word.
As Permanent Representative to the OPCW, Fauziah represented Malaysia in two Executive Council terms, even successfully co-facilitating on the difficult and controversial question of the OPCW’s inspection methodology. When the OPCW was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2013, there was no question that Fauziah would be among the handful of state representatives travelling to Oslo for the ceremony. In the Netherlands, Fauziah discovered a talent for painting and held her first exhibition at The Hague in 2012.
Fauziah is an avid traveller – an interest she developed after spending the summer of her graduation in 1977 backpacking and trekking across the continental USA.

Fauziah was born on 26 March 1955 in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The youngest of nine siblings, Fauziah grew up in a household with a stay-at-home mother and a civil servant father.
She studied International Relations at the University of Malaya (1974–1977), l’Université de Paris 1(Panthéon-Sorbonne)/I’Institut International d’Administration Publique, Paris, (1985–1986) and the University of Kent at Canterbury (1994–1996). It took her only 18 months to complete, and be awarded, a PhD in International Relations from the University of Kent at Canterbury.
Fauziah Mohd. Taib joined the Malaysian Civil Service in 1978. She started off began her career as an Assistant Director at the Implementation Coordination Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department, handling national development and women issues.
In 1983 she joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and was assigned to the Europe Division before being posted to the Embassy of Malaysia in Belgium in 1988. It was during her three-year stint in Brussels that she witnessed the establishment of the European Single Market and the fall of the Berlin Wall.
She returned to the Ministry in 1991 and was promoted to Principal Assistant Secretary in Economic Division, where her work took her to participate in numerous United Nations and other multilateral meetings, including that of the UN on Women in Development, UNCED Prep. Com. Meetings and the Earth Summit in Rio (Brazil); the UN General Assembly

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; the Non-Aligned Movement, the Summits of the Group of 15 Developing Countries (G15) and ASEAN Regional Meetings.
By 1993, Fauziah was co-ordinating East Europe affairs at the Ministry and monitoring Malaysia’s participation with SFOR and UNPROFOR during the Bosnian crisis. She attended numerous UN meetings for the Reconstruction of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Brussels) and visited Bosnia-Herzegovina several times during the reconstruction period.
In September 1994, Fauziah took a two-year sabbatical to continue her post-graduate doctoral studies under the sponsorship of the Federal Government. Upon her return with a PhD in August 1996, she served the Prime Minister’s special envoy on a mission to the Sudan and South Africa.
Fauziah’s passion for training and developing young minds led her to an appointment as the Director General of the Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR) where she began the painstaking process of revamping the diplomatic syllabus to fit the needs of a new diplomatic world. She continued publishing books while at IDFR and opened the windows of the diplomatic service to the world of publication.
Her next stint, as Director General for the newly established Policy and Strategy Planning within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, found Fauziah at the forefront of a number of new initiatives for the government. One of her papers, commissioned by the Foreign Minister, argued for a specific legal department within the Ministry, and led to the creation of the Ministry’s Department of Research, Treaties and International Law. She was also a member of the Malaysian team to the International Court of Justice on the legal dispute of Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge between Malaysia and Singapore.
Fauziah’s other overseas postings include as Deputy Chief of Mission in Washington, D.C. and Ambassador to Fiji (with concurrent accreditation to Nauru, Tonga, Kiribati, and Tuvalu), before being assigned as Ambassador to the Netherlands.
On 17 July 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH17

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, en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, was downed in rebel-held Ukrainian territory, near the Ukrainian-Russian border. A total of 283 passengers and 15 crew members from ten different countries were on board the ill-fated plane when it crashed. The majority of the passengers were Dutch.
When the human remains of flight MH17 were brought back to the Netherlands for the post-mortem process, Fauziah Mohd. Taib was appointed as her country’s lead focal point, heading Malaysia’s Joint Operations Centre in The Hague to oversee the repatriation of victims to their home country. As Ambassador, she also liaised with the Dutch government on matters related to the downed aircraft.
Fauziah’s interviews on several TV stations in the Netherlands as well as that of Malaysia, made her the ‘face’ of the MH17 crisis management operations in the Netherlands.

Forêt nationale de Lolo

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Montana
Géolocalisation sur la carte : États-Unis
La forêt nationale de Lolo (anglais : Lolo National Forest) est une forêt fédérale protégée située dans l’ouest de l’État du Montana, ainsi que la frontière ouest de l’Idaho, aux États-Unis. Elle s’étend sur une surface de 8 000 km2 et inclut 4 zones de nature sauvage : Scapegoat, Bob Marshall se trouvent partiellement dans la forêt, tandis que Welcome Creek et Mission Mountains se trouvent uniquement sur ce sol forestier. La forêt fut créée en 1906 de quatre forêts différentes qui existaient alors, et celles-ci fusionnèrent dans un but administratif. La forêt nationale de Lolo se situe à l’ouest du Continental Divide et bénéficie d’une biodiversité influencé par un climat continental et un climat océanique créant ainsi une forêt qui a un nombre important de plantes différentes et d’espèces d’arbres.
Thuya géant de Californie

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, mélèze, pin à écorce blanche picea sont les espèces d’abres que l’on peut y retrouver, ainsi que plusieurs variétés de sapins. Au total, il y vit au moins 1500 espèces de plantes, 60 espèces de mammifères, une vingtaine d’espèces de poissons et pas moins de 300 espèces d’oiseaux. Parmi les mammifères vivant dans cette forêt, on y retrouve l’ours brun, l’ours noir, la chèvre des montagnes rocheuses

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, le mouflon canadien, le wapiti, l’élan ou encore le cerf hémione. De plus, le pygargue à tête blanche et l’aigle royal y réside, ainsi que le cygne trompette, le grand Héron et une trentaine d’espèces de canards.
La forêt a amélioré une douzaine de campements et 1 100 km de sentiers de randonnée. Il y a plus de 100 lacs et 5 rivières incluant la rivière Flathead. Missoula est le siège social de cette forêt. La forêt s’étend sur les comtés de Mineral, Missoula, Sanders, Granite

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, Powell, Lewis et Clark, Flathead et de Ravalli.

Old Beta Theta Pi Fraternity House

The Old Beta Theta Pi Fraternity House is a historic building in Eugene, Oregon, United States

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. It is an American Foursquare in the American Craftsman (or American Craftsman Bungalow) style

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, showing considerable Prairie School influence. It was built in 1906-1907 by John B. Kronebusch

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, for between six and seven thousand dollars. Kronebusch leased it to the Beta Theta Pi fraternity for 15 years

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. It was then purchased by the Delta Zeta sorority, who occupied the house for six years from 1923 to 1929. A two-story addition was constructed in the mid-1930s, of materials compatible with the original house. In 1936, the upper two levels were turned into apartments separate from the first level and were given their own address of 1176 Mill Street. The exterior and all of the apartments retain a high degree of integrity, with minor modifications made mostly before 1937. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.
Kitchen (apt 4, second floor)
Ceiling light fixture
Doorway, 379 E 12th

Built Green Canada

Built Green Canada is a non-profit organization with environmental certification programs for residential builders. Calgary-based builder Jay Westman, with Canadian Home Builders’ Association-Calgary Region, founded Built Green Canada in 2003. Using the Built Green program in Colorado as a model, which was later customized to be relevant to the Canadian market. With input from industry professionals, such as builders, manufacturers, developers, and trades, along with the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), SAIT Polytechnic, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), and the Alberta Research Council and Climate Change Central, the organization was formed.

The organization started with Alberta members, then expanded into British Columbia. As of 2014, it gained its first Saskatchewan- and Manitoba-based members. It has a Board of Directors, a Technical Standards Committee

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, and the office (now headquartered in Edmonton). The organization has certified over 25,290 BUILT GREEN® homes represented in Alberta

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, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Ontario, and including the units in multi-storey, the total is 27,250 (as of December 2015). In Ontario, the program is referred to as “Green Seal”. In 2007, Built Green Canada was recognized with an Emerald Award, in partnership with SAIT and Enervision, which “celebrate[s] and inspire[s] environmental excellence”. Builders’ BUILT GREEN® homes have also been recognized for their environmental conscious design.
Sustainable building, or green building, has become increasingly popular, both for the environmentally conscious builder and for those responding to consumer demand. Various programs have developed to encourage and guide builders through the sustainable construction of their homes. These range from energy-focused programs, such as ENERGY STAR, to programs that include green features exceeding energy requirements, such as Built Green Canada, R-2000, Net Zero, LEED, and Passive House. National organizations, Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation and Genworth Financial Canada recognize energy efficient homes with rebates for homeowners.
Building homes has a considerable impact on the environment from natural resource use to landfill waste to production of greenhouse gases. Housing also accounts for a substantial amount of energy use in Canadian homes: 17%. With these green building programs focused on reducing builders’ and homeowners’ environmental footprint, accumulatively, they have the potential to drastically reduce wide-scale energy use and foster sustainable building practices. For the homeowner, these programs help them qualify for incentive programs, mortgage rebates and insurance premiums, and lower utility bills through reduced energy and water use. Affordability, relating to home ownership, continues to be a serious concern for industry and homeowners, because, as the Canadian Home Builders’ Association says, “[n]ew home prices are being driven higher by government actions, particularly at the municipal and provincial levels.” Many municipalities have departments or strategies focused on sustainable growth, some of which include the endorsement of environmental programs such as those of Built Green Canada
Built Green Canada is based in the residential building sector and has programs for Single Family, High Density, and a Renovations program in pilot and a Communities program under development. The program is based on a dual-label process; the EnerGuide label through Natural Resources Canada forms the first, and the BUILT GREEN® Checklist forms the second. This second measurement is determined by the builders’ selections chosen from the checklist.
The BUILT GREEN® program contains seven categories: energy efficiency; materials and methods; indoor air quality; ventilation; waste management

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; water management; and business practices. These areas are represented in a checklist, which builder members use to calculate points towards certification in the program

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; there are four levels of achievement: Bronze, Silver, Gold, and Platinum. The Program Guides complement the checklists and expand on the Checklist action items (180+ items for Single Family, 200+ for High Density, and 300+ for Renovations) to include their associated benefits, and provides a list of relevant resources.
Prior to a home certification, projects receive an EnerGuide label and undergo quality assurance checks. A selection of homes go through the Single Family Verification check, and any of those that are rejected go through an audit. All High Density projects have a BUILT GREEN® High Density Verifier who works alongside the builder. Once the project is submitted, a third-party audit is undertaken. Builders have the option of affixing plaques showcasing certification in, around, or on the home; however, many homes built in the program do not have plaques to distinguish them by, though the program’s seal may be found on the home’s furnace or homeowner’s manual.

Battle of the Wilderness

The Battle of the Wilderness, fought May 5–7, 1864, was the first battle of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s 1864 Virginia Overland Campaign against Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War. Both armies suffered heavy casualties, a harbinger of a bloody war of attrition by Grant against Lee’s army and, eventually, the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia. The battle was tactically inconclusive, as Grant disengaged and continued his offensive.
Grant attempted to move quickly through the dense underbrush of the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, but Lee launched two of his corps on parallel roads to intercept him. On the morning of May 5, the Union V Corps under Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren attacked the Confederate Second Corps, commanded by Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, on the Orange Turnpike. That afternoon the Third Corps, commanded by Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill, encountered Brig. Gen. George W. Getty’s division (VI Corps) and Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock’s II Corps on the Orange Plank Road. Fighting until dark was fierce but inconclusive as both sides attempted to maneuver in the dense woods.
At dawn on May 6, Hancock attacked along the Plank Road, driving Hill’s Corps back in confusion, but the First Corps of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet arrived in time to prevent the collapse of the Confederate right flank. Longstreet followed up with a surprise flanking attack from an unfinished railroad bed that drove Hancock’s men back to the Brock Road, but the momentum was lost when Longstreet was wounded by his own men. An evening attack by Brig. Gen. John B. Gordon against the Union right flank caused consternation at Union headquarters, but the lines stabilized and fighting ceased. On May 7, Grant disengaged and moved to the southeast, intending to leave the Wilderness to interpose his army between Lee and Richmond, leading to the bloody Battle of Spotsylvania Court House.

In March 1864, Grant was summoned from the Western Theater, promoted to lieutenant general, and given command of all Union armies. He chose to make his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac, although Meade retained formal command of that army. Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman succeeded Grant in command of most of the western armies. Grant, President Abraham Lincoln, and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the heart of the Confederacy from multiple directions, including attacks against Lee near Richmond, Virginia, and in the Shenandoah Valley, West Virginia, Georgia, and Mobile, Alabama. This was the first time the Union armies would have a coordinated offensive strategy across a number of theaters.
Grant’s campaign objective was not the Confederate capital of Richmond, but the destruction of Lee’s army. Lincoln had long advocated this strategy for his generals, recognizing that the city would certainly fall after the loss of its principal defensive army. Grant ordered Meade, “Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also.” Although he hoped for a quick, decisive battle, Grant was prepared to fight a war of attrition. Both Union and Confederate casualties could be high, but the Union had greater resources to replace lost soldiers and equipment.
At the beginning of the campaign, Grant’s Union forces totaled 118,700 men and 316 guns. They consisted of the Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, and the IX Corps (until May 24 formally part of the Army of the Ohio, reporting directly to Grant, not Meade). The five corps were:
Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia comprised about 64,000 men and 274 guns and was organized into four corps:
On May 4, 1864, the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River at three separate points and converged on the Wilderness Tavern, near the edge of the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, an area of more than 70 sq mi (181 km2) of Spotsylvania County and Orange County in central Virginia. Early settlers in the area had cut down the native forests to fuel blast furnaces that processed the iron ore found there, leaving only a secondary growth of dense shrubs. This rough terrain, which was virtually unsettled, was nearly impenetrable to 19th-century infantry and artillery maneuvers. A number of battles were fought in the vicinity between 1862 and 1864, including the bloody Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863. The Wilderness had been the concentration point for the Confederates one year earlier when Stonewall Jackson launched his devastating attack on the Union right flank at Chancellorsville. But Grant chose to set up his camps to the west of the old battle site before moving southward; unlike the Union army of a year before, Grant had no desire to fight in the Wilderness, desiring to move to the open ground to the south and east of the Wilderness before fighting Lee, taking advantage of his superior numbers and artillery.
Grant’s plan was for the V Corps (Warren) and VI Corps (Sedgwick) to cross the Rapidan at Germanna Ford, followed by the IX Corps (Burnside) after the supply trains had crossed at various fords, and to camp near Wilderness Tavern. The II Corps (Hancock) would cross to the east on Ely’s Ford and advance to Spotsylvania Court House by way of Chancellorsville and Todd’s Tavern. Speed was of the essence to the plan because the army was vulnerably stretched thin as it moved. Although Grant insisted that the army travel light with minimal artillery and supplies, its logistical “tail” was almost 70 miles. Sylvanus Cadwallader, a journalist with the Army of the Potomac, estimated that Meade’s supply trains alone—which included 4,300 wagons, 835 ambulances, and a herd of cattle for slaughter—if using a single road would reach from the Rapidan to below Richmond. Grant gambled that Meade could move his army quickly enough to avoid being ensnared in the Wilderness, but Meade recommended that they camp overnight to allow the wagon train to catch up. Grant also miscalculated when he assumed that Lee was incapable of intercepting the Union army at its most vulnerable point, and Meade had not provided adequate cavalry coverage to warn of a Confederate movement from the west.
On May 2, Lee met with his generals on Clark Mountain, obtaining a panoramic view of the enemy camps. He realized that Grant was getting ready to attack, but did not know the precise route of advance. He correctly predicted that Grant would cross to the east of the Confederate fortifications on the Rapidan, using the Germanna and Ely Fords, but he could not be certain. To retain flexibility of response, Lee had dispersed his Army over a wide area. Longstreet’s First Corps was around Gordonsville, from where they had the flexibility to respond by railroad to potential threats to the Shenandoah Valley or to Richmond. Lee’s headquarters and Hill’s Third Corps were outside Orange Court House. Ewell’s Second Corps was the closest to the Wilderness, at Morton’s Ford.
[In the Wilderness] numbers meant little—in fact, they were frequently an encumbrance on the narrow trails. Visibility was limited, making it extremely difficult for officers to exercise effective control. Attackers could only thrash noisily and blindly forward through the underbrush, perfect targets for the concealed defenders. In attack or retreat, formations could rarely be maintained. In this near-jungle, the Confederates had the advantages of being, on the whole, better woodsmen than their opponents and of being far more familiar with the terrain. Federal commanders were forced to rely upon maps, which soon proved thoroughly unreliable.
As Grant’s plan became clear to Lee on May 4, Lee knew that it was imperative to fight in the Wilderness for the same reason as the year before: his army was massively outnumbered, with approximately 65,000 men to Grant’s 120,000, and his artillery’s guns were fewer than and inferior to those of Grant’s. Fighting in the tangled woods would eliminate Grant’s advantage in artillery, and the close quarters and ensuing confusion there could give Lee’s outnumbered force better odds

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. He therefore ordered his army to intercept the advancing Federals in the Wilderness. Ewell marched east on the Orange Court House Turnpike, reaching Robertson’s Tavern, where they camped about 3–5 miles from the unsuspecting soldiers in Warren’s corps. Hill used the Orange Plank Road and stopped at the hamlet of New Verdiersville. These two corps could pin the Union troops in place (they had been ordered to avoid a general engagement until the entire army could be united), fighting outnumbered for at least a day while Longstreet approached from the southwest for a blow against the enemy’s flank, similar to Jackson’s at Chancellorsville.
The thick underbrush prevented the Union Army from recognizing the proximity of the Confederates. Adding to the confusion, Meade received an erroneous report that the Confederate cavalry under J.E.B. Stuart was operating in his Army’s rear, in the direction of Fredericksburg. He ordered the bulk of his cavalry to move east to deal with that perceived threat, leaving his army blind. But he assumed that the corps of Sedgwick, Warren, and Hancock could hold back any potential Confederate advance until the supply trains came up, at which time Grant could move forward to engage in a major battle with Lee, presumably at Mine Run.
Early on May 5, Warren’s V Corps was advancing over farm lanes toward the Plank Road when Ewell’s Corps appeared in the west. Grant was notified of the encounter and instructed “If any opportunity presents itself of pitching into a part of Lee’s army, do so without giving time for disposition.” Meade halted his army and directed Warren to attack, assuming that the Confederates were a small, isolated group and not an entire infantry corps. Ewell’s men erected earthworks on the western end of the clearing known as Saunders Field. Warren approached on the eastern end with the division of Brig. Gen. Charles Griffin on the right and the division of Brig. Gen. James S. Wadsworth on the left, but he hesitated to attack because the Confederate position extended beyond Griffin’s right, which would mean that they would be subjected to enfilade fire. He requested a delay from Meade so that Sedgwick’s VI Corps could be brought in on his right and extend his line. By 1 p.m., Meade was frustrated by the delay and ordered Warren to attack before Sedgwick could arrive.
Warren was correct to be concerned about his right flank. As the Union men advanced, Brig. Gen. Romeyn B. Ayres’s brigade had to take cover in a gully to avoid the enfilading fire. The brigade of Brig. Gen. Joseph J. Bartlett made better progress to Ayres’s left and overran the position of Brig. Gen. John M. Jones, who was killed. However, since Ayres’s men were unable to advance, Bartlett’s right flank was now exposed to attack and his brigade was forced to flee back across the clearing. Bartlett’s horse was shot out from under him and he barely escaped capture.
To the left of Bartlett, the Iron Brigade, commanded by Brig. Gen. Lysander Cutler, advanced through woods south of the field and struck a brigade of Alabamians commanded by Brig. Gen. Cullen A. Battle. Although initially pushed back, the Confederates counterattacked with the brigade of Brig. Gen. John B. Gordon, tearing through the line and forcing the Iron Brigade to flee for the first time in its history.
I saw many wounded soldiers in the Wilderness who hung on to their rifles, and whose intention was clearly stamped on their pallid faces. I saw one man, both of whose legs were broken, lying on the ground with his cocked rifle by his side and his ramrod in his hand, and his eyes set on the front. I knew he meant to kill himself in case of fire—knew it as surely as though I could read his thoughts.
Further to the left, near the Higgerson farm, the brigades of Col. Roy Stone and Brig. Gen. James C. Rice attacked the brigades of Brig. Gen. George P. Doles’s Georgians and Brig. Gen. Junius Daniel’s North Carolinians. Both attacks failed under heavy fire and Crawford ordered his men to pull back. Warren ordered an artillery section into Saunders Field to support his attack, but it was captured by Confederate soldiers, who were pinned down and prevented by rifle fire from moving the guns until darkness. In the midst of hand-to-hand combat at the guns, the field caught fire and men from both sides were shocked as their wounded comrades burned to death.
The lead elements of Sedgwick’s VI Corps reached Saunders Field at 3 p.m., by which time Warren’s men had ceased fighting. Sedgwick attacked Ewell’s line in the woods north of the Turnpike and both sides traded attacks and counterattacks that lasted about an hour before each disengaged to erect earthworks. During the fray, Confederate Brig. Gen. Leroy A. Stafford was shot through the shoulder blade, the bullet severing his spine. Despite being paralyzed from the waist down and in agonizing pain, he managed to still urge his troops forward.
Unable to duplicate the surprise that was achieved by Ewell on the Turnpike, A.P. Hill’s approach was detected by Brig. Gen. Samuel W. Crawford’s men from their position at the Chewning farm, and Meade ordered the VI Corps division of Brig. Gen. George W. Getty to defend the important intersection of the Orange Plank Road and the Brock Road. Union cavalry under Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson, employing repeating carbines, succeeded in briefly delaying Hill’s approach. Getty’s men arrived just before Hill’s and the two forces skirmished briefly, ending with Hill’s men withdrawing a few hundred yards west of the intersection. A mile to the rear, Lee established his headquarters at the Widow Tapp’s farm. Lee, Jeb Stuart, and Hill were meeting there when they were surprised by a party of Union soldiers entering the clearing. The three generals ran for safety and the Union men, who were equally surprised by the encounter, returned to the woods, unaware of how close they had come to changing the course of history. Meade sent orders to Hancock directing him to move his II Corps north to come to Getty’s assistance.
By 4 p.m., initial elements of Hancock’s corps were arriving and Meade ordered Getty to assault the Confederate line. As the Union men approached the position of Maj. Gen. Henry Heth, they were pinned down by fire from a shallow ridge to their front. As each II Corps division arrived, Hancock sent it forward to assist, bringing enough combat power to bear that Lee was forced to commit his reserves, the division commanded by Maj. Gen. Cadmus M. Wilcox. Fierce fighting continued until nightfall with neither side gaining an advantage.
Grant’s plan for the following day assumed that Hill’s Corps was essentially spent and was a prime target. He ordered an early morning assault down the Orange Plank Road by the II Corps and Getty’s division. At the same time, the V and VI Corps were to resume assaults against Ewell’s position on the Turnpike, preventing him from coming to Hill’s aid, and Burnside’s IX Corps was to move through the area between the Turnpike and the Plank Road and get into Hill’s rear. If successful, Hill’s Corps would be destroyed and then the full weight of the army could follow up and deal with Ewell’s.
Although he was aware of the precarious situation on the Plank Road, rather than reorganizing his line, Lee chose to allow Hill’s men to rest, assuming that Longstreet’s Corps, now only 10 miles from the battlefield, would arrive in time to reinforce Hill before dawn. When that occurred, he planned to shift Hill to the left to cover some of the open ground between his divided forces. Longstreet calculated that he had sufficient time to allow his men, tired from marching all day, to rest and the First Corps did not resume marching until after midnight. Moving cross-country in the dark, they made slow progress and lost their way at times, and by sunrise had not reached their designated position.
Like a fine lady at a party, Longstreet was often late in his arrival at the ball. But he always made a sensation and that of delight, when he got in, with the grand old First Corps sweeping behind him as his train.
As planned, Hancock’s II Corps attacked Hill at 5 a.m., overwhelming the Third Corps with the divisions of Wadsworth, Birney, and Mott; Getty and Gibbon were in support. Ewell’s men on the Turnpike had actually attacked first, at 4:45 a.m., but continued to be pinned down by attacks from Sedgwick’s and Warren’s corps and could not be relied upon for assistance. Lt. Col. William T. Poague’s 16 guns at the Widow Tapp farm fired canister tirelessly, but could not stem the tide and Confederate soldiers streamed toward the rear. Before a total collapse, however, reinforcements arrived at 6 a.m., Brig. Gen. John Gregg’s 800-man Texas Brigade, the vanguard of Longstreet’s column. General Lee, relieved and excited, waved his hat over his head and shouted, “Texans always move them!” Caught up in the excitement, Lee began to move forward with the advancing brigade. As the Texans realized this, they halted and grabbed the reins of Lee’s horse, Traveller, telling the general that they were concerned for his safety and would only go forward if he moved to a less exposed location. Longstreet was able to convince Lee that he had matters well in hand and the commanding general relented.
Longstreet counterattacked with the divisions of Maj. Gen. Charles W. Field on the left and Brig. Gen. Joseph B. Kershaw on the right. The Union troops, somewhat disorganized from their assault earlier that morning, could not resist and fell back a few hundred yards from the Widow Tapp farm. The Texans leading the charge north of the road fought gallantly at a heavy price—only 250 of the 800 men emerged unscathed. At 10 a.m., Longstreet’s chief engineer reported that he had explored an unfinished railroad bed south of the Plank Road and that it offered easy access to the Union left flank. Longstreet assigned his aide, Lt. Col. Moxley Sorrel, to the task of leading four fresh brigades along the railroad bed for a surprise attack. Sorrel and the senior brigade commander, Brig. Gen. William Mahone, struck at 11 a.m. Hancock wrote later that the flanking attack rolled up his line “like a wet blanket.” At the same time, Longstreet resumed his main attack, driving Hancock’s men back to the Brock Road, and mortally wounding Brig. Gen. James S. Wadsworth.
Longstreet rode forward on the Plank Road with several of his officers and encountered some of Mahone’s men returning from their successful attack. The Virginians believed the mounted party were Federals and opened fire, wounding Longstreet severely in his neck and killing a brigade commander, Brig. Gen. Micah Jenkins. Longstreet was able to turn over his command directly to Charles Field and told him to “Press the enemy.” However, the Confederate line fell into confusion and before a vigorous new assault could be organized, Hancock’s line had stabilized behind earthworks at the Brock Road. The following day, Lee appointed Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson to temporary command of the First Corps. Longstreet did not return to the Army of Northern Virginia until October 13. (By coincidence

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, he was accidentally shot by his own men only about 4 miles (6.4 km) away from the place where Stonewall Jackson suffered the same fate a year earlier.)
At the Turnpike, inconclusive fighting proceeded for most of the day. Early in the morning, Brig. Gen. John B. Gordon scouted the Union line and recommended to his division commander, Jubal Early, that he conduct a flanking attack, but Early dismissed the venture as too risky

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. According to Gordon’s account after the war, General Lee visited Ewell and ordered him to approve Gordon’s plan, but other sources discount Lee’s personal intervention. In any event, Ewell authorized him to go ahead shortly before dark. Gordon’s attack made good progress against inexperienced New York troops who had spent the war up until this time manning the artillery defenses of Washington, D.C., but eventually the darkness and the dense foliage took their toll as the Union flank received reinforcements and recovered. Sedgwick’s line was extended overnight to the Germanna Plank Road. For years after the war, Gordon complained about the delay in approving his attack, claiming “the greatest opportunity ever presented to Lee’s army was permitted to pass.”
Reports of the collapse of this part of the Union line caused great consternation at Grant’s headquarters, leading to an interchange that is widely quoted in Grant biographies. An officer accosted Grant, proclaiming, “General Grant, this is a crisis that cannot be looked upon too seriously. I know Lee’s methods well by past experience; he will throw his whole army between us and the Rapidan, and cut us off completely from our communications.” Grant seemed to be waiting for such an opportunity and snapped, “Oh, I am heartily tired of hearing about what Lee is going to do. Some of you always seem to think he is suddenly going to turn a double somersault, and land in our rear and on both of our flanks at the same time. Go back to your command, and try to think what we are going to do ourselves, instead of what Lee is going to do.”
On the morning of May 7, Grant was faced with the prospect of attacking strong Confederate earthworks. Instead, he chose maneuver. By moving south on the Brock Road, he hoped to reach the crossroads at Spotsylvania Court House, which would interpose his army between Lee and Richmond, forcing Lee to fight on ground more advantageous to the Union army. He ordered preparations for a night march on May 7 that would reach Spotsylvania, 10 mi (16 km) to the southeast, by the morning of May 8. Unfortunately for Grant, inadequate cavalry screening and bad luck allowed Lee’s army to reach the crossroads before sufficient Union troops arrived to contest it. Once again faced with formidable earthworks, Grant fought the bloody Battle of Spotsylvania Court House (May 8–21) before maneuvering yet again as the campaign continued toward Richmond.
Although the Wilderness is usually described as a draw, it could be called a tactical Confederate victory, but a strategic victory for the Union army. Lee inflicted heavy numerical casualties (see estimates below) on Grant, but as a percentage of Grant’s forces they were smaller than the percentage of casualties suffered by Lee’s smaller army. And, unlike Grant, Lee had very little opportunity to replenish his losses. Understanding this disparity, part of Grant’s strategy was to grind down the Confederate army by waging a war of attrition. The only way that Lee could escape from the trap that Grant had set was to destroy the Army of the Potomac while he still had sufficient force to do so, but Grant was too skilled to allow that to happen. Thus, the Overland Campaign, initiated by the crossing of the Rappahannock, and opening with this battle, set in motion the eventual destruction of the Army of Northern Virginia.
Therefore, even though Grant withdrew from the field at the end of the battle (which is usually the action of the defeated side), unlike his predecessors since 1861, Grant continued his campaign instead of retreating to the safety of Washington, D.C. The significance of Grant’s advance was noted by James M. McPherson:
Both flanks had been badly bruised, and [Grant’s] 17,500 casualties in two days exceeded the Confederate total by at least 7,000. Under such circumstances previous Union commanders in Virginia had withdrawn behind the nearest river. Men in the ranks expected the same thing to happen again. But Grant had told Lincoln “whatever happens, there will be no turning back.”
While the armies skirmished warily on May 7, Grant prepared to march around Lee’s right during the night to seize the crossroads village of Spotsylvania a dozen miles to the south. If successful, this move would place the Union army closer to Richmond than the enemy and force Lee to fight or retreat. All day Union supply wagons and the reserve artillery moved to the rear, confirming the soldiers’ weary expectation of retreat. After dark the blue divisions pulled out one by one.
Estimates of the casualties in the Wilderness vary. The following table summarizes estimates from a number of sources:
Gordon C. Rhea acknowledges the officially reported Union casualties of 17,666, but suspects that some of the returns—particularly in Warren’s corps—were falsified on the low side, to minimize the negative impact of the battle on the public. He estimates Grant’s loss at 17%. He accepts Union estimates of 11,000 Confederate casualties.
Portions of the Wilderness battlefield are preserved as part of Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, established in 1927 to memorialize the battlefields of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Spotsylvania Court House, and the Wilderness. In addition to this land that has been protected by the National Park Service, several volunteer organizations have been active in preservation activities. The Friends of the Wilderness Battlefield have been active in helping to preserve and enhance the Ellwood Mansion, which was the headquarters for both Gouverneur K. Warren and Ambrose Burnside during the battle and the family cemetery there holds the plot where Stonewall Jackson’s arm was buried. While the NPS acquired 180 acres (73 ha) of Ellwood in the 1970s, the FOWB is responsible for the preservation of the 1790s-era house and its interpretation.
The Civil War Trust in 2008 began a campaign to prevent the development of a 138,000-square-foot (3-acre; 12,821 m2) Wal-Mart Supercenter on a 55-acre (22 ha) tract north of the intersection of Routes 3 (the Germanna Highway) and 20 (the Orange Turnpike), immediately across Route 3 from the National Military Park, near the site of the Wilderness Tavern. Other organizations supporting the campaign were the Vermont state legislature and the “Wilderness Battlefield Coalition”, which includes the Piedmont Environmental Council, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, the National Parks Conservation Association, Friends of the Wilderness Battlefield, and Friends of the Fredericksburg Area Battlefields. The campaign was a success: on January 26, 2011, Wal-Mart announced that it had canceled plans for the Supercenter in the disputed location.
During the Civil War Centennial, the United States Post Office issued five postage stamps commemorating the 100th anniversaries of famous battles, as they occurred over a four-year period, beginning with the Battle of Fort Sumter Centennial issue of 1961. The Battle of Shiloh commemorative stamp was issued in 1962, the Battle of Gettysburg in 1963, the Battle of the Wilderness in 1964, and the Appomattox Centennial commemorative stamp in 1965.