Chu (État)

VIIIe siècle-223 av. J.-C.

Les royaumes combattants vers -260 ; le Chu est en vert

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Chu ou l’état de Chu (chinois simplifié : 楚国 ; chinois traditionnel : 楚國 ; pinyin : chǔguó ; littéralement : « pays Chǔ ») était un État des périodes des Printemps et Automnes et des Royaumes combattants, établi sur le fleuve Yangzi. Chu a été annexé par Qin en 223 av. J.-C. La maison royale de Chu à l’origine portait le nom ancestral Nai () et le nom de clan Yan () mais ceux-ci sont devenus plus tard Mi () et Xiong ().

Il fut formé dans l’antiquité par l’expansion des Han vers le sud dans les régions occupées par l’ethnie des Miao qui conservait des rites et des croyances très anciens.

Connu à l’origine sous le nom de Jing (), puis de Jingchu (荆楚), cet État occupa à l’apogée de sa puissance de vastes étendues de territoire incluant les provinces actuelles du Hunan personalised glass water bottles, Hubei, Chongqing, Henan et des parties du Jiangsu. Sa capitale était Yingdu (actuelle Jingzhou, dans la province de Hubei) key holder for running.

Il annexa le Yue en -334.

Le pays de Chu se comportait avec arrogance envers les États limitrophes, parce qu’il estimait qu’aucun de ces États n’était en mesure de le vaincre.

Or un jour le roi Zhao de Chu (en), était en visite à la cour du duc Zhao de Cai et reçut un manteau de fourrure en cadeau du duc de Cai, mais le conseiller du roi de Chu exigea d’avoir le manteau que le duc portait. Ce-dernier, bien sûr, refusa. Alors le duc fut pris en otage et quand il donna son manteau, il fut libéré. Mais le duc de Cai était furieux ; il demanda de l’aide au duché de Jin, qui répondit par l’affirmative et envahit la province de Shen, qui appartenait au pays de Chu. C’était le casus belli, que Wu attendait. Cai fut envahit par Chu, mais au même instant le royaume de Wu envahit les terres du pays de Chu, qui allait dégénérer jusqu’à la prise de Ying, la capitale, poussant le roi Zhao de Chu à fuir en catastrophe la capitale jusqu’à Sui, un État vassal.

Chu eut maille à partir avec son nouveau voisin de l’est l’État de Wu. Cet État avait préalablement vaincu par la force le petit mais très puissant État de Qi au nord. Wu se retourna alors vers Chu et l’envahit. En 506 av. J.-C. Chu fut sévèrement vaincu à la bataille de Boju par l’armée de Wu presque dix fois moins nombreuse et commandée par Sun Zi, Wu Zixu et le roi Helü de Wu. Les conséquences de cette bataille furent très importantes ; le roi de Chu fut contraint de fuir la capitale Ying pour se réfugier à l’étranger. Ying fut par la suite prise par Wu et le pays de Chu, occupé durant deux ans.

En 223 av. J.-C. Chu fut envahi et annexé par Qin, mettant ainsi fin à une des plus grandes menaces qui pesaient encore sur le Qin.

De lui vient la moitié des œuvres contenues dans le recueil classique des Chants de Chu (楚辞 / 楚辭, chǔ cí).

En se basant sur les découvertes archéologiques, l’on voit que la culture de Chu a d’abord été assez semblable à celle des autres États Zhou du bassin du fleuve Jaune. Par la suite, la culture de Chu absorbe les éléments indigènes de la Baiyue et est devenu une culture distincte des États des plaines du nord.

Chu était souvent en contact avec d’autres peuples dans le sud, notamment les Ba, Yue, et les Baiyue. De nombreuses sépultures et objets de sépulture dans les styles Ba et Yue ont été découverts sur le territoire de Chu, co-existant avec sépultures Chu de style et des objets funéraires.

Les premiers souverains de la dynastie des Han ont idéalisé la culture de Chu, suscitant un regain d’intérêt dans les éléments culturels Chu comme les Chants de Chu. Des preuves de la lourde influence culturelle Chu apparaissent à Mawangdui. Après la dynastie des Han, des lettrés confucéens considèrent la culture Chu avec dégoût, qualifiant “d’obscène” la musique et les rituels chamaniques liés à la culture Chu.

L’artisanat de Chu montre une maîtrise de la forme et la couleur bottled water bottles, en particulier les boiseries de la laque. Les vernis pigmenté en rouge et en noir ont été les plus utilisés. Le tissage de la soie a également atteint un haut niveau de savoir-faire, notamment dans la création de robes légères. Ces exemples (comme à Mawangdui) ont été conservés dans des tombes gorgés d’eau où le vernis n’a pas décoller au fil du temps et dans les tombes scellées avec du charbon ou de l’argile blanche.

Chu utilise le script calligraphique complexe appelé « Calligraphie oiseaux et insectes » (鸟虫书 / 鳥蟲書, niǎochóngshū), qui a été emprunté par les États Wu et Yue. Il a une conception complexe qui embellit les caractères avec des motifs d’animaux, serpents, oiseaux et insectes. Ceci est un autre exemple de la vénération Chu du monde naturel et sa vivacité. Chu produit de larges épées de bronze qui étaient semblables à des épées Wuyue sans être aussi complexe.

Cedynia (gmina)

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Cedynia est une gmina mixte du powiat de Gryfino, Poméranie occidentale, dans le nord-ouest de la Pologne, sur la frontière avec l’Allemagne. Son siège est la ville de Cedynia, qui se situe environ 45 km au sud-ouest de Gryfino et 65 km au sud-ouest de la capitale régionale Szczecin.

La gmina couvre une superficie de 180,38 km2 pour une population de 4 343 habitants.

Outre la ville de Cedynia, la gmina inclut les villages de Barcie, Bielinek, Czachów thermos 22 ounce tritan hydration bottle, Golice, Lubiechów Dolny, Lubiechów Górny, Łukowice, Markocin best shaver reviews, Niesułów, Orzechów, Osinów Dolny, Parchnica, Piasecznik, Piasek, Radostów bottled water bottles, Siekierki bpa free water jugs, Stara Rudnica, Stary Kostrzynek, Trzypole et Żelichów.

La gmina borde les gminy de Chojna, Mieszkowice et Moryń. Elle est également frontalière de l’Allemagne.

Dobbs Ferry, New York

Dobbs Ferry is a village in Westchester County, New York. The population was 10,875 at the 2010 census. The Village of Dobbs Ferry is located in, and is a part of, the town of Greenburgh. The village ZIP code is 10522. Most of the Village falls into the boundaries of the Dobbs Ferry Union Free School District.

Dobbs Ferry was ranked seventh in the list of the top 10 places to live in New York State for 2014 according to the national online real estate brokerage Movoto. Dobbs Ferry is also the first village in New York State certified as a Climate Smart Community, honored in 2014 with the highest level given out in the state.

Dobbs Ferry was named after Jeremiah Dobbs, a descendent of William Dobbs, of Swedish and Dutch ancestry whose family ran a ferry service that traversed the Hudson River at this location. Jeremiah [Dobbs] was a fisherman and settled near the southern part of what is now Dobbs Ferry, and he “‘added to his meager income by ferriage of occasional travelers across the Hudson. He used a style of boat known at that day as a periauger, a canoe hollowed out of a solid log. . . From this primitive ferry the village took its name.'”

Dobbs Ferry played a vital role in the American Revolutionary War. The position of the village opposite the northernmost end of The Palisades gave it importance during the war. The region was repeatedly raided by camp followers of each army; earthworks and a fort, commanding the Hudson ferry and the ferry to Paramus, New Jersey, were built; the British army made Dobbs Ferry a rendezvous, after the Battle of White Plains in November 1776, and the continental division under General Benjamin Lincoln was here at the end of January 1777.

In July and August, 1781, during the seventh year of the war, Continental Army troops, commanded by General George Washington, were encamped in Dobbs Ferry and neighboring localities, alongside allied French forces under the command of the Comte de Rochambeau. A large British army controlled Manhattan at the time, and Washington chose the Dobbs Ferry area for encampment because he hoped to probe for weaknesses in the British defenses, just 12 miles (19 km) to the south. But on August 14, 1781, a communication was received from French Admiral Comte de Grasse in the West Indies, which caused Washington to change his strategy. De Grasse’s communication, which advocated a joint land and sea attack against the British in Virginia make your own meat tenderizer, convinced Washington to risk a march of more than 400 miles (640 km) to the Chesapeake region of Virginia. Washington’s new strategy, adopted and designed in mid-August 1781, at the encampment of the allied armies, would win the war. The allied armies were ordered to break camp on August 19, 1781: on that date the Americans took the first steps of their march to Virginia along present-day Ashford Avenue and Broadway bottled water bottles, en route to victory over General Cornwallis at the Siege of Yorktown and to victory in the Revolutionary War.

The village was originally incorporated in 1873 as Greenburgh, but the name was changed to Dobbs Ferry in 1882.

The current local government of Dobbs Ferry is headed by Mayor Hartley S. Connett; an independent, Connett was elected in November 2009 along with his three running mates for Village Trustee running on the independent, non-partisan Dobbs Ferry Party line.

The Estherwood and Carriage House, Hyatt-Livingston House, South Presbyterian Church, and United States Post Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

As of the census of 2000, there were 10,622 people, 3,792 households, and 2,570 families residing in the village. The population density was 4,350.0 people per square mile (1,680.8/km²). There were 3,941 housing units at an average density of 1,614.0 per square mile (623.6/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 80.70% White, 7.38% African American, 0.08% Native American, 7.56% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.93% from other races, and 2.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.00% of the population.

There were 3,792 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.2% were non-families. Of all households, 27.6% were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.13.

In the village the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 7 top football uniforms.3% from 18 to 24, 27 donair meat recipe.4% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.5 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $70,333, and the median income for a family was $93,127. Males had a median income of $65,532 versus $50,091 for females. The per capita income for the village was $35,090. About 1.8% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.

Dobbs Ferry is located at (41.012729, -73.866026).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 3.2 square miles (8.3 km2), of which 2.4 square miles (6.2 km2) is land and 0.7 square miles (1.8 km2), or 23.03%, is water.

The village is bounded on the west by the Hudson River, and on the east by the Saw Mill River. Wickers Creek (name derived from the indigenous Weckquaesgeek) runs east to west through the center of the village from its main source in the Juhring Nature Preserve, Todd’s Pond.

The village consists of a series of neighborhoods as defined in the 2010 Vision Plan, the Master Plan for the Village. These neighborhoods are not popularly recognized as of 2014. As the Vision Plan states, “Sometimes the boundaries of these neighborhoods are clearly defined, but other times less so. Where necessary, boundaries have been interpolated.” The neighborhoods are: Broadway, Wickers Creek, Waterfront, Old Town, Fairmead, Riverview Manor, Villard, Osborne, Belden, Maple, Walgrove, Virginia, Beacon Hill, Campuses and Woods, Parkway, Southfield, Knoll, Northfield, and Juhring. (Homes in “Juhring” are commonly referred to by real estate brokers as part of the “Ardsley Park” neighborhood, which encompasses the Juhring neighborhood in Dobbs Ferry and the Ardsley-on-Hudson neighborhood of Irvington, New York.).

A majority of the village is within the Dobbs Ferry Union Free School District, which consists of Springhurst Elementary, grades K–5, Dobbs Ferry Middle School, grades 6–8, and the Dobbs Ferry High School, grades 9–12.

Mercy College, a private, four-year institution with undergraduate and graduate programs, has its main campus in Dobbs Ferry. Our Lady of Victory Academy, a local parochial school offering grades 9–12 for girls, was located on the campus of Mercy College until its closing in 2011.

The Masters School is a private school located south of the town center that offers grades 5–12 for boys and girls. It is a boarding or day school that was founded in 1877 by Eliza Masters. The school contains a mansion called Estherwood.

An Alcott Montessori School is located in the town.

Almost 10% of households do not own a car and rely on public transit, bicycling, and walking.

Several lines of the Bee-Line Bus System run through Dobbs Ferry, facilitating north-south travel along the Broadway/Route 9 corridor and east-west along Ashford Avenue. The village operates a shuttle bus from the train station in the afternoon and evenings.

Commuter rail service to Grand Central Terminal is available via the Dobbs Ferry train station, served by Metro-North Railroad. The train runs on the Hudson Line, and travel time from Dobbs Ferry to Grand Central Terminal is approximately 37 minutes on an express train and 43 minutes on a local train. Many Metro North riders connect to the New York City Subway at Marble Hill to reach destinations on the west side of Manhattan, or at Harlem–125th Street for the upper east side.

Amtrak inter-city rail trains travel on the Hudson Line tracks, but trains do not stop in the village. The closest Amtrak stations are: Stamford and New York Pennsylvania Station for the Northeast Corridor Line, and Yonkers and Croton–Harmon stations for the Hudson River Line.

The village’s runs a variety of programs out of the Embassy Community Center, including art and dance classes, sports leagues, summer camp, and other activities open to the public. Programs for older adults are also well-funded and used. Additional sports leagues for baseball and soccer are run independently but use village facilities.

There are a variety of village public parks, in order of size:

Two linear parks used for active transportation and recreation traverse Dobbs Ferry as well. The Old Croton Aqueduct Trailway, a linear State Park, runs north-south through the village on its western side. The South County Trailway, a linear Westchester County park also runs north-south through the village, but on its eastern side along the bank of the Saw Mill River.

Dobbs Ferry is served by a paid police department, a volunteer fire department (housing three pumpers and one tower ladder in two firehouses) and a volunteer ambulance corps (possessing two ambulances (one equipped with four-wheel-drive) and a fire rehab unit). As a part of the Town of Greenburgh, the village is eligible for additional coverage from the town services. Mutual aid agreements exist with neighboring municipalities for further coverage.