Harald Schjelderup

Harald Krabbe Schjelderup (født 1895 i Tvedestrand, død 1974) ble Norges første professor i psykologi i 1928. Schjelderup tok doktorgrad i eksperimentell psykologi, og i 1922 ble han professor i filosofi ved Universitetet i Oslo. I 1928 ble dette professoratet omgjort til psykologi. Under den andre verdenskrig var han en fremtredende motstandsmann og ble i 1943 arrestert og satt i konsentrasjonsleir frem til 1945.

Harald Schjelderup var sønn av biskop i Kristiansand stift Kristian Vilhelm Koren Schjelderup d.e. (1853–1913) og Henriette Nikoline Hassel. Han var bror av den senere biskop i Hamar Kristian Schjelderup (1894–1980) glass water bottle camelbak. I 1912 tok han realartium ved Kristiansand katedralskole. Deretter begynte han å studere teologi big goalkeeper gloves, men gikk senere over til realfagsstudier, og ble assistent hos professor Lars Vegard. Sammen med ham utga han et par avhandlinger om krystallanalyse av atomenes struktur. Samtidig studerte han også filosofi, og fikk Monrads gullmedalje for avhandlingen «Hovedlinjer i filosofiens utvikling fra midten av det 19. aarhundrede til vor tid». I 1917, bare 21 år gammel, ble han universitetsstipendiat i filosofi og reiste til København, hvor han studerte under professor Alfred Lehmann.

Sammen med broren utdannet Schjelderup seg på 1920- og 30-tallet til psykoanalytiker hos Eduard Hitschmann i Wien og Oscar Pfister i Zürich. Han ble en sentral person for introduksjonen av psykoanalysen i Norge. I 1934 var han med å stifte Norsk psykologforening og Norsk Psykoanalytisk Forening. På 1950-tallet utførte han en studie av langtidsvirkninger av psykoterapi som muligens er den første av sitt slag.

Schjelderup forsøkte å forene de naturvitenskapelige områdene av psykologien med psykoanalysen. Dette gjorde ham til en omstridt person i de medisinske og psykologiske fagmiljø. Mest kjent ble kanskje konflikten med legen Gabriel Langfeldt.

Schjelderup var også interessert i blant annet religionspsykologi og parapsykologi ut fra et psykoanalytisk perspektiv, og han skrev avhandlinger innen disse emnene. Han skrev også forordet til Anna Elisabeth Westerlunds bok Synsk i 1968.

Lokalene til Psykologisk institutt ved Universitetet i Oslo er kalt Harald Schjelderups hus.

Den kjente legen Vilhelm Schjelderup er hans sønn.


Robert Kraichnan

Robert Harry Kraichnan (January 15, 1928 – February 26, 2008), a resident of Santa Fe, New Mexico, was an American theoretical physicist best known for his work on the theory of fluid turbulence.

Kraichnan received his Ph.D. from MIT, graduating in 1949 how to use a lemon press. He became a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in 1949/50, and was one of the last assistants to Albert Einstein.

After his appointment at Princeton adolph’s tenderizer, he worked in Columbia University and the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University. From 1962 on, he was supported by research grants and worked as a freelance consultant for the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Princeton University, the Office of Naval Research, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and NASA. He had a keen passion for hiking, so he lived in the mountains of New Hampshires and later in White Rock, New Mexico and eventually to Santa Fe, New Mexico near Los Alamos. In 2003, he returned to academia when he was appointed Homewood Professor in the Whiting School of Engineering at Johns Hopkins University, but by this time he had already fallen ill.

He was the recipient of the Lars Onsager Prize and the 1993 Otto Laporte Award of the American Physical Society, and the 2003 Dirac Medal. He was also a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Kraichnan married twice and has a son, John Kraichnan, by his first wife, Carol Gebhardt. He is also survived by his second wife, Judy Moore-Kraichnan, an artist and photographer who lives in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

In the 1950s, his work was focused on quantum field theory and the quantum mechanical many-body problem, developing starting in 1957 a method for finding a self-consistent formulation for many-body field theories glass water bottle camelbak, N-random-coupling-models, in which N copies of a microscopic theory are coupled together in a random way.

Following earlier work of Andrei Kolmogorov (1941), Lars Onsager (1945), Werner Heisenberg (1948), Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and others on the statistical theory of turbulence, Kraichnan developed a field-theoretic approach to fluid flow in 1957 derived from approaches to the quantum many-body problem— the Direct Interaction Approximation. In 1964/5, he recast this approach in the Lagrangian picture, discovering a scaling correction which he had earlier incorrectly ignored. The statistical theory of turbulence in viscous liquids describes the fluid flow by a scale-invariant distribution of the velocity field, which means that the typical size of the velocity as a function of wavenumber is a power-law. In steady state, larger scale eddies at long wavelengths disintegrate into smaller ones, dissipating their energy into smaller length scales. This type of dissipation is not caused by friction on the molecular level, but by the nonlinear effects of the Navier Stokes equations. In the final stages of the energy cascade, at the smallest length scales, the viscosity becomes important and the energy dissipates into heat.

Kraichnan developed his turbulence theories over many decades and was one of the prominent American theorists in this area. From 1967 onwards, he maintained that for two-dimensional turbulence energy does not only dissipate itself from large scales (determined by the size of obstacles in the flow) to smaller ones as it does in three dimensions

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, but conversely that smaller fluctuations can increase in size. This theory is called the inverse Energy Cascade, and it is especially applicable to oceanography and meteorology, since flows on the surface of the earth are approximately two-dimensional. The theory was tested and confirmed in the 1980s by data gathered from weather balloons.

Also influential was a 1994 paper which presented an exactly solvable turbulence model, now called the Kraichnan model. This model predicts exactly computable anomalous scaling exponents for the advection of a passive scalar field, like the concentration of a dye injected into the fluid which does not diffuse but moves with the fluid along the flow lines.

Even as a student, Kraichnan was busily investigating the general theory of relativity, and his research won the prestigious Westinghouse Science Competition for students. He rewrote this work for his Bachelor thesis at MIT in 1947, titled “Quantum Theory of the Linear Gravitational Field”. Following an approach that was echoed by Suraj N. Gupta, Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg, Kraichnan showed that, under some mild secondary assumptions, the full nonlinear equations of general relativity follow from its linearized form: the quantum field theory of a massless spin 2 particle, the graviton, coupled to the stress-energy tensor. The full nonlinear equations emerge when the energy-momentum of the gravitons themselves are included in the stress-energy tensor in a unique self-consistent way.

Giannetto De Rossi

Giannetto De Rossi (born 1942) is an Italian make up artist who has worked on films such as Emanuelle in America, Zombie 2 and Dune.

One of his first special FX roles was as make up artist for Joe D’Amato, whose film Emanuelle in America required detailed special FX for the notorious snuff film sequences. De Rossi prepared several gruesome effects for the film reels custom college football jerseys, which were played as part of the narrative; the effects included a woman’s breasts being hacked off, multiple floggings, burning with acid and pokers and shootings. The FX were so convincing, many thought them real snuff film scenes, also an actress complained, she had been traumatised by the effects as well.

When gore master Lucio Fulci required FX, for the goriest horror film in history Zombi 2 designer glass water bottles, De Rossi arrived on set, and in the process created zombies, bite wounds and an exploding head. This film cemented his reputation as possibly the greatest special FX designer of all time. De Rossi would continue to help Fulci in two more films: The Beyond and The House by the Cemetery.

De Rossi was next called by Dino De Laurentiis to work with Carlo Rambaldi to create the on-set practical effects for two films in Mexico including the sci fi blockbuster Dune, for which he worked wonders, creating the fetus-shaped Spice Guild Navigator seen floating in a tank. The other film (shot simultaneously and using many of the same sets) would be Conan the Destroyer in which he helped create the mutated Wizard as well as the Dagoth monster suit worn by André the Giant team football socks.

In the late 80’s he created the special makeup effects on Rambo III most specifically the shot in which Rambo heals himself by igniting gunpowder inside of a torso bullet wound (De Rossi rigged a device which caused flame to burst from both Sylvester Stallone’s stomach and back at once). Stallone was so impressed by De Rossi’s work that he made sure to hire him again for the make-up effects for Daylight (1996 film), which was shot in Rome and put Stallone’s son Sage Stallone in contact with Lucio Fulci. Fabrizio De Angelis (who had previously produced all the Fulci films De Rossi had worked on) invited him in to work in the Dominican Republic to create the title monster in the film Killer Crocodile (1989 film) with the offer to direct two low budget sci-fi films (Killer Crocodile 2 and The Cy Warrior) of his own for his company Fulvia Film.

He is also notable as the designer of the mask used in the film The Man in the Iron Mask (1998 film).

De Rossi continued creating FX for both Italian and American cinema, of which he still does today.

His film credits as special make-up & effects artist.

Christopher Roth (2010)(post-production)

The Last Legion (2007)

“Pompei”(2007) TV mini-series

Ring of the Nibelungs (2004)(TV)

Modigliani (2004)

Haute tension(High Tension) (2003)

Uprising (2001) (TV)

Amici ahrarara (2001)

Harrison’s Flowers (2000)

Vatel (2000)

Asterix et Obelix contre Cesar (1999)

The Man in the Iron Mask (1998)

Kull the Conqueror (1997)

Daylight (1996)

Dragonheart (1996)

Catherine the Great (1995)(TV)

The Inner Circle (1991)

Dr. M (1990)

Killer Crocodile (1989)

Rambo III (1988)

State buoni…se potete (1984)

Dune (1984)

Conan the Destroyer (1984)

I predatori di Atlantide(Atlantis Inferno) (1983)

La traviata (1983)

Piranha Par Two: The Spawning (1981)

Quella villa accanto al cimitero(The House by the Cemetery) (1981)

E tu vivrai nel terrore-L’aldila(The Beyond aka Seven Doors of Death) (1981)

Zombi Holocaust(Zombie Holocaust aka Dr glass water bottle camelbak. Butcher M.D.) (1980)

Apocalypse domani(Cannibal Apocalypse aka Cannibals in the Streets aka Invasion of the Fleshhunters) (1980)

Zombi 2(Zombie aka Zombie Flesh Eaters) (1979)

L’umanoide(The Humanoid) (1979)

King of the Gypsies (1978)

Emanuelle in America (1977)

Il Casanova di Federico Fellini(Fellini’s Casanova) (1976)

Cattivi pensieri (1976)


Non si deve profanare il sonno dei morti(No profanar el sueno de los muertos aka The Living Dead at Manchester Morgue aka Let Sleeping Corpses Lie aka Don’t Open the Window aka Do No Speak III of the Dead) (1974)

Mussolini: Ultimo atto(The Last 4 Days)(1974)

Ash Wednesday (1973)

Valdez, il mezzosangue(Chino) (1973)

II prode Anselmo e il suo scudiero (1972)

La piu bella serata della mia vita (1972)

All’onorevole piacciono le donne Nonostante le apparenza…e purche la nazione non lo sappia(The Senator Likes Women) (1972)

The Valachi Papers (1972)

Quando gli uomini armarono la clava e…con le donne fecero din-don(When Men Carried Clubs and Women Played Ding-Dong aka When Women Played Ding Dong) (1971)

Waterloo (1970)

Quando le donne avevano la coda(When Women Had Tails) (1970)

The Invincible Six (1970)

C’era una volta il West(Once Upon a Time in the West) (1968)

The Taming of the Shrew (1967)

Io,io,io…e gli altri(Me,Me,Me…and the Others) (1966)

Svegliati e uccidi(1966)

La donna del lago(The Possessed) (1965)

Cadavere per signora(Corpse for the Lady) (1964)

I maniaci(The Maniacs) (1964)

Obiettivo ragazze (1963)

Le ore della’amore(The Hours of Love) (1963)

His credits as director & Writer.

Tummy (1995)

Killer Crocodile II (1990)

Cyborg il guerriero d’acciaio (1989)